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Preliminary results of the kNOwHATE project released

The kNOwHATE project, led by researcher Rita Guerra from the CIS-Iscte, has released preliminary findings on online hate speech in Portugal. The study analyzed 24,739 YouTube comments and 29,846 tweets, revealing patterns consistent with both national and international research.

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The analysis focused on comments from 88 YouTube videos and tweets from 2,775 conversations. Portuguese content likely to generate hate speech was selected, with criteria including videos having at least 100 comments and 1,000 views, and tweets geo-located in Portugal.


Both direct and indirect hate speech were examined, with indirect forms being more prevalent. In terms of emotional content, hate was more common in direct speech, while anger dominated indirect speech. The study found different emotional expressions across targeted communities: anger was more prevalent against LGBTI+ communities, while explicit hate was more common against Roma and Migrant communities.


Counter-speech was more frequent on Twitter than on YouTube, characterized by counter-stereotypes, empathy, and inclusive identities. The study highlights the necessity of culturally sensitive approaches to better understand and combat online hate speech.


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